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Simak! Langkah-Langkah Penerapan Model Pembelajaran Teams Games Tournament

Dalam belajar kelompok dan isinya hanya diskusi saja, tentu akan sangat membosankan bagi siswa. Perlu adanya kegiatan lain untuk meningkatkan motivasi belajarnya.

Pasti menyenangkan apabila selain belajar dengan teman di kelompok, tetapi hasilnya langsung dijadikan kompetisi dan mendapatkan penghargaan.

Jadi makin bersemangat dalam mengerjakan tugas bersama dengan kelompok.

Untuk melakukan hal seperti diatas, ada model pembelajaran yang cocok yang dapat guru coba. Yaitu model pembelajaran Teams Games Tournament.

Berbeda dengan kelompok belajar yang lainnya, karena TGT ini menggunakan turnamen sebagai kegiatan belajar utama. Turnamen ini menjadi pengganti kuis yang bisa menunjukkan hasil belajar siswa.

Model pembelajaran teams games tournament ini adalah salah satu bagian dari pembelajaran kooperatif. Dimana pembelajaran kooperatif ini merupakan metode yang menempatkan siswa untuk belajar dalam kelompok.

Tidak hanya mengerjakan tugas saja, namun kemampuan kerjasama disini akan dilatih untuk mencapai tujuan yang sama.

Model pembelajaran ini merupakan salah satu model pembelajaran yang menggunakan kelompok.

Yang menjadi pembeda dari kelompok belajar dalam model pembelajaran lainnya adalah model pembelajaran TGT ini menggunakan turnamen sebagai kegiatan belajar utamanya.

Turnamen ini menjadi pengganti kuis yang bisa menunjukkan hasil belajar siswa dari belajar kelompok.

Menurut DeVries, model pembelajaran Teams Games Tournament (TGT) adalah model pembelajaran yang mengatur kembali kelas ke dalam kelompok beranggotakan 4-5 siswa. Dimana masing-masing kelompok punya anggota dari semua tingkat prestasi.

Menurut tokoh lain, seperti Slavin, model pembelajaran TGT adalah model pembelajaran terdiri dari dua komponen utama yaitu tim siswa yang beranggotakan 4-5 orang, dan turnamen.

Pengertian lainnya mengenai model pembelajaran teams games tournament ini adalah model pembelajaran yang memungkinkan siswa untuk belajar secara kelompok.

Dengan anggota setiap kelompok mempunyai latar belakang yang berbeda-beda jadi sering disebut dengan kelompok heterogen.

Dalam proses pembelajaran kelompok ini, ada kegiatan tutor sebaya yang terjadi secara tidak sengaja. Karena ada perbedaan latar belajar pada setiap anggotanya, sehingga mereka akan saling berbagi informasi. 

Dengan belajar bersama teman dan mempunyai tanggung jawab yang sama untuk memenangkan turnamen.

Maka mereka akan saling membantu dan mendorong dalam menguasai keterampilan. Dengan begitu, mereka bisa lebih aktif dan pembelajarannya berjalan menyenangkan. 

Berdasarkan penelitian DeVries, model pembelajaran TGT berperan positif dalam hasil belajar siswa.

Model pembelajaran ini menunjukkan pola yang jelas dalam peningkatan prestasi akademik, kepuasan siswa dengan kelas, tutor sebaya atau kepedulian antar siswa, kerjasama tim, dan pemahaman materi pelajaran.

Model pembelajaran TGT mempunyai beberapa komponen utama, yaitu:

  1. Presentasi kelas, dimana pembelajaran diawali dengan penyajian materi oleh guru. Mengharuskan siswa untuk memberikan perhatiannya pada sesi ini. Karena disini akan berisi instruksi untuk kegiatan kelompok.
  2. Team atau kelompok, biasanya terdiri atas empat sampai lima orang siswa yang berbeda-beda tetapi mewakili seluruh bagian kelas. Misalnya dalam perbedaan pengetahuan akademik, jenis kelamin, ras atau suku.
  3. Games atau permainan, berisi pertanyaan yang dirancang untuk menguji kesiapan siswa dalam penugasan materi pelajaran.
  4. Turnamen, perwakilan siswa akan berkompetisi untuk mengetahui sejauh mana tingkat pemahaman mereka dari hasil belajar kelompok.
  5. Penghargaan akan kelompok, ketika kelompok dapat menyelesaikan atau menjawab pertanyaan dengan baik dan benar, maka akan dineri penghargaan sebagai apresiasi.
Langkah-Langkah Penerapan Model Pembelajaran Teams Games Tournament

Dalam menerapkan model pembelajaran TGT ini, ada beberapa langkah yang perl dilakukan. Diantaranya adalah,

1. Menyampaikan fokus materi

Berisi mengenai guru dalam menyampaikan materi, tujuan pembelajaran, pokok materi, dan penjelasan singkat LKS dengan pengajaran angsung atau dengan ceramah.

Disini siswa harus fokus untuk memahami materi, guna menjadi bekal dalam kerja kelompok atau games nanti.

2. Mengelompokkan siswa

Guru akan mengelompokkan siswa dengan anggota empat sampai lima orang berdasarkan latar belakang yang berbeda dan mewakili keseluruhan kelas seperti kriteria kemampuan akademik, jenis kelamin, ras atau suku. 

Kelompok ini akan diberi tugas untuk mempelajari lembar kerja. Untuk kegiatannya berupa diskusi masalah-masalah, membandingkan jawaban, memeriksa, dan memperbaiki kesalahan dari pemahaman konsep pada masing-masing anggota.

3. Melakukan permainan

Pelaksanaan permainan ini diwakili oleh 3 orang dari masing-masing kelompok. Siswa akan memilih kartu bernomor dan mencoba menjawab pertanyaan yang sesuai dengan nomor yang dipilih. 

4. Menyelenggarakan turnamen

Kegiatan turnamen dilaksanakan seperti guru memberikan pertanyaan sebagau bentuk evaluasi hasil belajar, kemudian siswa akan bersaing untuk menjawabnya dengan baik dan benar. Apabila dapat menjawab, maka akan mendapatkan skor atau nilai.

5. Memberi penghargaan

Guru akan memberikan penghargaan sesuai dengan kesepakatan diawal bagi kelompok yang mendapatkan jumlah skor sesuai dengan kriteria yang telah dibuat.

Kelebihan dan Kekurangan Model Pembelajaran Teams Games Tournament
  1. Menggunakan lebih banyak waktu untuk permainan dan turnamen yang bisa memperdalam pengetahuan siswa.
  2. Mengedepankan penerimaan perbedaan tiap masing-masing siswa.
  3. Memotivasi siswa untuk terus belajar dan mendapatkan hasil yang lebih baik.
  4. Meningkatkan hubungan antar siswa karena adanya interaksi yang aktif dalam kelas.
  5. Membantu siswa dalam mengembangkan kerjasama yang dibutuhkan dalam kehidupan siswa.
  6. Mengembangkan kemampuan kerjasama yang dibutuhkan dalam kehidupan siswa.
  7. Memberikan kesempatan bagi siswa untuk berkontribusi dalam proses pembelajaran.

Untuk kekurangannya, sebagai berikut:

  1. Tidak semua siswa ikut menyumbangkan pendapatnya saat turnamen, karena hanya perwakilan saja.
  2. Kekurangan waktu untuk proses pembelajaran.
  3. Memungkinkan terjadinya gaduh dan mengganggu kelas lainnya apabila guru tidak dapat menguasai kelas dengan baik.
  4. Memungkinkan siswa yang memiliki kemampuan akademis yang tinggi akan mendominasi kelompok, sehingga proses tutor sebayanya tidak berjalan dengan baik.

Demikian langkah-langkah model pembelajaran TGT yang dapat diterapkan di kelas.


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